— Table of Ranks

Table of Ranks

– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Report Card [1] of ranks  – a table containing a list of correspondences between the military, civil and court ranks , ranked by 14 classes. Established by decree of Peter I on January 24  ( February 41722 year, “Table of Ranks of all ranks, military, State and courtiers, that which class ranks; and which are in the same class, they have a seniority date of entry to the office of one another, but w military above the other, although used and older who are in the classroom has been granted ” [2] . In the future, with multiple changes are applied in the Russian Empire and the Russian republic .

The text of the decree was attended by more natural for the modern Russian language the phrase “table of ranks”, but history has firmly entered the phrase “table of ranks”, as used in the title of the decree.

Table of Ranks, one of the editions of the XVIII century

History

Q ratio ranks has been the subject of attention of Peter I, long before the establishment of the Table of Ranks. The note of Peter I of 18  ( 29 ) On December  1713 , states, “discharged from the Swedish and protchih order degrees [3] all ranks except the military,” [4] .

Peter was personally involved in the editing of the decree, which is based on borrowing from “schedules Wikipedia rough draft, Peter signed his February 1, 1721, but ordered before publication to make it to the Senate [ source not specified 83 days ]. The decree was also considered in the Military and Admiralty Board, which made a number of remarks about the placement rank by rank, on salaries wages, the introduction in the report card of the ancient Russian officials and the elimination of the item on penalties for engaging in the church space above his rank. All these comments were left without consideration. The work on the final decree edited attended

Main provisions of the decree 

Table of Ranks (the end of XIX century)

Peter’s roster consisted of 263 positions, each of which is from the time the decree was also ranked in rank and a status is not related to official duties – “Knights of St. Andrew “- consisting of ground military ranks 3rd class. Subsequently, many of these in the table of posts were abolished, and called the status of report cards is excluded. Military officials declared above the respective civil and even court officials. Decree 19 contains explanatory paragraphs to the report cards. The content of the explanatory points is as follows.

Imperial Blood Princes have at any rate the presidency over all the princes and “high ministers of the Russian state.” With this exception the social position of employees is determined by the rank of persons, and not “breed”.

For the requirement of honors and rank sites higher in public celebrations and official meetings relies fine equal to two months’ salary shtrafuemogo; ⅓ fine money goes to the informer, the rest – for the maintenance of hospitals . The same penalty is assumed and assignment of his seat a person of lower rank.

Report Card to some extent made it possible to advance talented people from the lower classes . “In order to hunt in order to apply to the service and add-on honor, not brash and parasites get” – read the decree of the 3rd paragraph.

Persons who are alien to the service can receive the appropriate rank only as according to them “the nature of which they are in other people’s services received.”

The sons of titled individuals and in general the most illustrious nobility although they are unlike other free access to court assemblies, but do not get any rank, while the “fatherland no services will not show, and shared in the same nature will not receive.” Civilian officials, as well as the military, are superannuation or special “noble” merit.

Everyone should have the carriage and livery , corresponding to his rank.

Public punishment on the area, as well as torture and entail loss of rank themselves, which can be returned only for special services, nominal decree, announced publicly.

Married wives’ come in ranks on ranks of their husbands “and subject to the same penalties for offenses against their rank. The girls in the comparison with the wives of persons with the rank, are considered to be on the 4th rank below their fathers.

All who have received the first 8 ranks on The State or the court agency , ranked as hereditary nobility to the best senior, “even if it was a low rock”; the military hereditary nobility acquired by receiving the first ober-officer rank, with a knighthood applies only to children born already upon receipt of the father of this order; If on receipt of the rank of the children he is born, he may request the granting nobility prezhderozhdёnnyh one of his children.

Peter I, in preference to all emphasizing the military to a civilian, did not want to establish a civilian ranks the first class; but bent on persuasion Osterman , of diplomatic prestige equated to the first class rank of the Chancellor as the head of the diplomatic department. Only later it was established the rank of privy councilor I class .

The relatively low ranking (4th grade) believes the president “The State” board, that is, by European notions, Minister. Subsequently, the ministers had ranks of privy councilor , privy councilor , in some cases, the actual state councilor , in particular during the reign of Nicholas II of .

Adjutant-General was in the 6th grade (on par with land colonel and Guards Major ), adjutant general under General Field Marshal  – in the 7th grade, general-adjutant while “generals full” – in the 8th grade. In the future, the rank of the Adjutant General was transformed into the suite the title, for which it was necessary to have a military rank not below the 4th grade.

The impact on society and the nobility

KK Pirate Officials of the Military Ministry of the 5th and 8th grades. 1863[6]

Civilian officials of the military department. Artillery official headquarters officer rank, Surveyorchief officer rank, the official educational service of military schools not having a military rank. 1883 [7]

At the introduction of the Table of Ranks ancient Russian ranks – boyars , courtiers , and so forth..  – Were not formally abolished, but these award ranks ceased.

Peter’s roster has changed for nearly two centuries as a result of major reforms. The names of the same number of civilian posts have turned into civil ranks without regard to the actual duties of the carrier. Thus, the names of ranks ” collegiate secretary “, ” the collegiate assessor “, ” collegiate counselor ” and ” State Councillor ,” originally meant the post of secretary of the college , the college board member with deliberative and a casting vote and the president of “The State” board. ” The court counselor ” means the President of Court of the court ; outbuildings courts were abolished as early as 1726, and the name of the rank remained until 1917.

Issue report cards had a significant impact on the service schedule and the historical fate of the nobility . The only control was the personal service seniority; “Paternal honor”, “breed” lost in this respect have any meaning. This led to an increase in social mobility .

Military service was separated from civil and court. It legalizes the purchase of the nobility was renowned seniority rank and award monarch that influenced the democratization of the noble class, to consolidate the serving character of the nobility and gentry bundle mass in the new groups – the nobility hereditary and personal.

According to the manifesto of 11  ( 23 ) On June  1845 the year [8] The right of hereditary nobility was got with manufacture in the head officer rank (8th grade), or the rank of 5th grade of the civil service, provided that these ranks are assigned not exit in resigned. Personal nobility officer received only from the 9th grade employees in the lower ranks were entitled to the status of personal honorable citizens.In the military service of personal nobility gave the so-called chief officer ranks (not higher than 9 th grade).

Alexander II decree of 9  ( 21 ) On December  1856 the year [9] found that the right of hereditary nobility purchased obtaining the rank of colonel (6th grade), and the civil department – obtaining the rank of 4th class (State Councillor). These provisions are in force until 1917.

The further development of the idea

Further legislation on the promotion in rank a few turns away from the original idea of the Table of Ranks.

According to the original plan meant ranks themselves positions, distributed over 14 classes, but over time officials received independent significance of honorary titles, irrespective of the positions.

On the other hand, for the production of some grades for the nobility established abbreviated terms; then officials have been promoted, entitled hereditary nobility. These rules were designed to limit the democratizing effect of report cards on the composition of the nobility.

Class ranks are used in modern Russia. Currently a table correlation of class ranks of the federal civil service, military and special ranks, class ranks of justice, class ranks of prosecutors, approved by Presidential Decree of 01.02.2005 number 113 (as amended by Presidential Decree of 30.09.2013 number 744) .

Ranks and terms of service

Class Civil (The State) ranks Military ranks The court officials The term of service [10] to get the next rank, the rank of the following civil
1 No Not provided [11]
2 Not provided [11]
3 Not provided [11]
4 [12] Not provided [11]
5 [13]
  • Master of Ceremonies (from 1800)
  • Kammerjunker (up to 1809)
Not provided [11]
6 4 years ↗ State Counsellor
7 No 4 years ↗ collegiate counselor
8 [14] 4 years ↗ court counselor
9 3 years ↗ collegiate assessor
10
  • Captain-lieutenant in the infantry (1730-1797)
  • The captain in the infantry (1797-1884)
  • Seconds-captain in the cavalry (up to 1797)
  • Staff-captain in the cavalry (1797-1884)
  • Tseyhvarter artillery (up to 1884)
  • Lieutenant (1884)
  • Lieutenant Guard (1730)
  • Podesaul Cossacks (up to 1884)
  • Centurion Cossacks (1884)
  • in the navy
No 3 years ↗ government clerk
eleven
  • Ship in the Navy Secretary (up to 1764)
No
12
  • Lieutenant (1730-1884)
  • Lieutenant in the infantry (from 1884-1917)
  • Cornet in the cavalry (from 1884-1917)
  • Ensign Guard (1730-1884)
  • Centurion Cossacks (up to 1884)
  • Cornet Cossacks (1884)
  • Unter-lieutenant in the navy (1722-1732)
  • Midshipman in the Navy (1796-1884)
3 years ↗ collegiate secretary
13 No
14
  • Fendrick infantry (1722-1730)
  • Ensign in the infantry (1730-1884)
  • Cornet in the cavalry (1731-1884)
  • The bayonet-cadet in the artillery (1722-1796)
  • Cornet Cossacks (up to 1884)
  • Midshipman in the Navy (1732-1796)
  • Ensign in the Guards (1826)
  • Midshipman in the Navy [15] [16]
No 3 years ↗ Provincial Secretary

Appeals to the classes

Authorized treatment respectively class
I – II III – IV V VI – VIII IX – XIV
Your Excellency Your Excellency Your Honor Your Excellency Your honor

Mountain ranks

In 1722-1834 gg. in the mountainous department of the Russian Empire ( Berg-Collegium , Mining Department ) there were special mountain grades . In 1834, the mining department was militarized ( Corps of Mining Engineers ), and mountain ranks replaced by the military.

Ranks and titles outside the table of ranks

Military ranks above the Table of Ranks

Military ranks below the Table of Ranks

Termination

The court officials

Ceased to exist after the February Revolution  – with 4  ( 17 ) On March  1917 , in connection with the liquidation of the Institute of imperial power .

Civilian officials

Ceased to exist with 12  ( 25 ) On November  1917 the year – the date of entry into force of the Decree of the destruction of estates and civil ranks [17] .

Military officials

On the territory of the Petrograd military district ceased to exist with 3  ( 16 ) On December  1917 , on the basis of the order in the district [18] .

The army units in the rest of the Russian Republic, controlled by People’s Commissars , ceased to exist with 17  ( 30 ) On December  1917 the year – the date of entry into force of the CPC adopted “Decree on the equation of all troops in rights”[19] .

In the Navy ceased to exist with 12  ( 25 ) On January  1918 the year – the date of entry into force of the “Decree on the democratization of the fleet”, signed by the People’s Commissar for Naval Affairs P. Dybenko and Managing Marine MinistryM. Ivanov [20] .

In areas controlled by the white and Cossack Governments , applied to October 1922.

[Source: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A2%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C_%D0%BE_%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B3%D0%B0%D1%85]